Does baby-led weaning increase the risk of choking?
No. A randomized control trial referred to as the BLISS study demonstrated that babies were no more likely to choke when self-feeding safe finger foods than babies who are spoonfed.1 The study also confirmed that choking risk decreases when a baby self-feeds, which has been deeply researched in the adult population.2 3 4 In our extensive clinical experience, we have seen babies who learn to self-feed a variety of textures early on become more skilled eaters and are less likely to accidentally choke or struggle with food as they grow older and begin to eat more challenging foods with less and less supervision.5 Just like practice walking and climbing builds babies’ balance over time, we believe that trying to eat a wide variety of foods builds their chewing skills over time.
At what age can my baby start baby-led weaning?
6 months old is usually the marker when a full-term, healthy baby is developmentally ready to eat solids. Around this age, babies are able to sit unsupported, control their head movement, show attentive interest in the activity, and able to bring food to their mouths accurately. Each baby develops along their own timeline, but it is rare to see 4- or 5-month-old babies who show all these skills.
Can you do baby-led weaning with purées?
Baby-led weaning is a way of introducing solid food by skipping purées and mashes and going straight to finger foods. However, our opinion is that babies who are self-feeding benefit from a wide variety of textures and food consistencies, including the occasional purée or pouch now and then. Even adults eat purees and soft foods like hummus and yogurt! If you choose to give your babies a pouch, you can encourage self-feeding by letting them hold it by themselves.
I’m starting solids late. Can I do baby led weaning?
Yes. While technically the term “baby-led weaning” refers to starting solids with finger food and self-feeding, all babies must transition to chewable food at some point during their weaning journey. So even if you begin with a spoon feeding approach, your baby must learn to eat table food independently. The safest way for a baby to consume table food is via self-feeding (choking risk increases when caregivers put finger food or table food directly in baby’s mouth) so when baby transitions to table food or finger food, it’s important to let baby take the lead and feed themselves. Once you start finger foods (regardless of baby’s age), you may consider beginning with the 6+ month presentations as these are easier for novice eaters to get to the mouth and begin to manipulate. (See our free First Foods® database for details). Also, check out our on demand Spoons to Fingers webinar for more tips with this transition.
My baby vomited after eating some food. What do I do?
First, check with your pediatrician to make sure the reaction doesn’t indicate a bigger issue, such as an allergic reaction, FPIES, or reflux. Other reasons for why babies may vomit during or after eating include being too full when they started the meal (for example when the solids meal is too close to a breast or bottle feed), or after gagging. If you suspect that baby may have thrown up from being too full of milk, wait at least one hour after breast or bottle feeding your baby before offering solid foods. If it seems like your baby is throwing up a lot while eating or if anything concerns you, talk to your pediatrician. For more on gagging, what it looks like and what it’s not, see our Gagging page or our video on gagging and choking.
I’ve read footplates on high chairs are a must for baby-led weaning. Why?
Have you ever tried to eat from a bar stool with no footrest? With your legs just dangling? Apart from being uncomfortable, dangling legs impact a baby’s core stability. Core strength gives your babies the stable platform they need to focus on developing dynamic and complex movements in their fingers and tongue as they learn to self-feed. Proper positioning while eating—sitting totally upright, hips at a 90 degree angle, feet supported—will not only increase the amount of time your babies are willing to stay seated in their high chair, but should decrease the risk of choking as well.
What is the best high chair for baby-led weaning?
The most important things to look for in a high chair include an upright position—no leaning or tilting back whatsoever—and an adjustable footplate that supports your baby’s feet and legs so that their hips are at a 90 degree angle. It is also important to have a detachable tray so you can pull your baby’s chair up to the table. Read about our recommendations in our Ultimate Guide to High Chairs or watch our video here for the lowdown on high chairs.
What are the best foods for baby-led weaning?
In general, for 6- to 12-month-old babies, you want to focus on foods that are packed with iron, protein, and are nutrient-dense. It’s also important that the food is able to be prepared or modified in a way that is easy to hold and safe to consume at this age. Check out our guides for the best and worst foods for babies, or dive right in to our free First Foods® database.
For more information on age-appropriate food sizes and how to modify foods for babies to safely self-feed, check out our section on Food Sizes & Shapes for Babies.
Can you use pouches when doing baby-led weaning?
As long as you prioritize self-feeding, it is our opinion that babies benefit from a wide variety of textures and food consistencies, including the occasional purée or pouch. If you choose to serve a pouch at mealtime, you can encourage self-feeding by letting your babies hold it themselves.
Do babies need teeth to eat real solid food?
No. It is a misconception that babies need teeth to eat. Did you know that the teeth that we actually use to chew (our molars) don’t come in until well after the first birthday? Babies can munch and grind food with their gums. Be sure to check out the foods that are not safe for babies before the age of one as well as common choking hazards.
Does baby-led weaning prevent picky eating?
We believe that it does. The more babies are empowered to self-feed without pressure from caregivers to eat a certain food or to eat in a certain way, the more accepting they will be to new foods. Baby-led weaning builds a strong foundation for eating. It is not a magic potion against picky phases, which many babies go through around 18 to 36 months of age, but the eating habits (for child and parent) developed in those early days of starting solids help families navigate them quickly.
How do you know when a baby is ready for solids?
Your baby is ready to start solids when they are able to sit upright with minimal support, control their head movements, apply their motor skills to accurately bring food to their mouth, and express an interest in self-feeding. These developmental milestones are usually reached around 6 months of age. The best way to “know” is to start bringing your babies to the table when they hit the 5-month mark and let them sit in your lap as you eat. If your babies can hold their heads up the whole time, watch you eat, and attempt to grab at the food, this tells you that they are probably ready to start solids!
How do I know if my baby is choking?
First, it is important to distinguish the difference between gagging and choking. True choking is when the airway is obstructed and your babies are having trouble breathing. Signs of a baby choking include an inability to cry, difficulty breathing, lungs pulling inward, high-pitched sounds, or turning blue. If you suspect your baby is choking, call 9-1-1 or local emergency services immediately and conduct age-appropriate CPR.
Is there a difference between gagging and choking?
Yes. True choking is when the airway is obstructed and your baby is having trouble breathing. Signs of a baby choking include an inability to cry, difficulty breathing, lungs pulling inward, high-pitched sounds, or changing color, often a blue, purple or ashen hue. If you suspect your baby is choking, call 9-1-1 or local emergency services immediately and conduct age-appropriate CPR.
Gagging is a protective reflex that results in the contraction of the back of the throat. It is a natural function and protects from choking. When this happens, it’s important to let your baby work the food forward on their own and to refrain from sticking your finger in their mouths, which can make the situation worse.
How do I know if my baby is getting enough food to eat?
Generally speaking, babies are getting “enough” to eat when they are able to sustain consistent periods of being content, alert, and playful; peeing several times a day; pooping daily or every few days; energetically exploring their environment; learning new skills; and steadily growing.
In the first year of life, the primary source of nutrition should be breast milk or formula, which can be complemented by nutrient-dense solid food at around 6 months old. During this phase, remember that learning to eat solid foods takes time and babies will often continue to eat around the same volume of breast milk or formula. Just as we would not expect a baby who is learning to walk to be able to hike alongside us, we should not expect an infant who is just learning to taste, explore, and chew solid foods to actually eat those foods (at all or at least efficiently) at first. Babies are incredibly good at regulating their appetites and communicating cues to parents that they are hungry or full.6 As long as you are offering your baby solid food two to three times a day (and after 12 months old, moving to three meals + two snacks a day) and continuing to offer breast milk or formula feeds until around 12 to 15 months old, your baby should be getting enough to eat. If you have any concerns about your baby’s weight or growth, check in with your pediatrician.
Should I offer a breast or bottle feed before or after solid food?
Timing breast or bottle feeds around solid meals largely depends on baby’s age and how long they’ve been eating solids.
Many 6-8-month-old babies first starting with solids do well with a brief breast or bottle feed before and after a solid food meal. This prevents them from getting overly hungry or frustrated at the table and helps fill their belly after working hard to explore and learn about eating solid food. However, if baby is quick to gag, spit up, or throw up, hold the pre-meal snack and offer a post-meal breast or bottle feed about an hour after the solid food meal.
Around 8-10 months old and after practicing eating solid foods for 2-3 months, most babies no longer need a breast or bottle appetizer before a solid food meal. At this age and stage, most babies are ready for a hunger-drive motivation to explore and eat at the table. A post-meal breast or bottle feed may still be helpful though.
As baby reaches 12 months of age, allow at least an hour between breast or bottle feeds and solid meals to encourage more intake of solid foods at the meal.
My baby has undigested food in their poop. Is this normal?
Yes, it is actually quite common (and completely normal) to see partially digested bits of food in your baby’s poop! Solid food can pass rather quickly through a baby’s digestive tract. The faster the food travels, the less time it has to be fully digested. Certain other factors like juice and antibiotics can cause food to move rapidly through the intestines as well, leading to very loose poop with bits of food in it. Also, remember that your baby is developing chewing skills at this age. This can also result in seeing pieces of carrots, broccoli, blueberries among others in the poop. In general, as long as your baby is thriving, this is not worrisome. If you consistently see undigested food in your baby’s poop and/or your baby is having difficulty gaining weight, we strongly suggest that you check in with your child’s health care provider.
My baby spits out most of the food. Why?
Babies are born with a tongue thrust, which means their tongues push things like food forward and out of their mouths. They also have spent the first several months of their life moving their tongue forward and backwards as part of breast and bottle feeding, so those mouth muscles are quite strong! As babies learn to chew and swallow, they begin to exercise different muscles—the ones that move their tongues to the side of their mouths. Around the 6- to 7-month mark, the tongue thrust begins to disappear, and with some practice, babies develop new tricks to break down the food and move it backwards to swallow. At this stage, it’s very common for babies to spit out food that is too big to swallow or not chewed enough. They’re learning—and this is a good thing that you may even want to coach your baby to do so that they become more comfortable with eating.
If you have any concerns about how your baby is eating or swallowing, make an appointment with your pediatrician.
Why does my baby spit out same-textured food?
So with the spitting of the same texture, it’s common and normal like it’s normal for some kids to skip crawling or to be less athletic or slower to grasp reading (all fine but may put your babe at a small health or life disadvantage and suggests they need a little support in this area). It’s normal but not an ideal response and that small “preference” can snowball into a distinct problem over time. As a caveat, therapists really like to call this abnormal and often scare parents by saying their kid may have sensory processing disorder. Yes, they *might* and it’s also a symptom associated with autism, but on its own, it’s not really indicative of anything and can just be part of natural differences in a person’s nervous system which can be outgrown with time and patience. More on spitting here.
Is my baby eating too much solid food?
No. Babies come in all shapes and sizes and with a wide range of appetites. Trust that your baby will eat when hungry and stop when full. If you have any concerns about your baby’s weight or growth, check in with your child’s medical provider. The beauty of finger food first, however, is that your baby is self-feeding, and therefore learning how to recognize hunger and fullness cues on their own.
Is my baby having too much milk?
The simple answer is no. Parents occasionally misinterpret a baby’s cries as signs of hunger when they may just be fussy because they are bored, frustrated, tired, etc. It’s okay to try other ways to soothe your baby, such as rocking, singing, or playing. Experiment to see if these alternatives work but always trust your instincts and your baby, and offer milk feeds as baby is interested. A baby will rarely overeat.
My baby is low on iron. What foods should I offer?
Iron deficiency—which is serious—is quite common in babies and toddlers. To help your baby boost their iron reserves, serve foods like red meat, liver, and sardines. You can also serve plant-based sources of iron, such as lentils and chickpeas, alongside foods that are high in vitamin C, such as strawberries, to aid iron absorption. Our round-up of iron-rich foods might give you some ideas for what to offer baby for their next meal.
My baby is throwing food. What do I do?
Don’t worry! It’s normal. Many babies—especially those who are younger than 12 months old—have not developed the dexterity to hold onto their food, so naturally their food falls to the floor as they learn how to grip. After the 12-month mark, babies start to learn that they can throw food to assert their independence or get attention from you. Don’t react in a negative way; simply offer the food to them one more time. If they throw it again, try applying a little tough love: “I see you are throwing your food. Okay, breakfast is over. We’ll have more to eat at snack time.” Then remove the meal. During this phase, if you have a family dog, consider moving the pet outside or into a separate room at mealtimes to limit your babies’ temptation to drop or throw food for the fun of watching the dog react. Read more in our post on throwing food.
Do babies still get the nutritional benefit of food if they swallow it before properly chewing it?
It’s important to remember that chewing is a learned behavior. While it is true that adults generally chew their food more completely than infants or toddlers, this does not mean that young eaters are not absorbing adequate nutrients. There is no evidence to suggest that infants who follow baby-led weaning or a finger food first approach weigh less than spoon-fed babies, nor do they face an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies.7